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Cloudant’s replication capabilities are best-of-class. Data can be copied from one database to another in the same Cloudant account, across accounts and across data centers. Data can even be replicated to and from a Cloudant account and a mobile device using Cloudant Sync or PouchDB. Replication can run in one direction or in both directions, as a ‘single shot’ or continuous operation, and can be finely tuned with optional parameters.

Cloudant’s replication protocol is compatible with a range of other databases and libraries, making it a great fit for Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile applications.

This guide introduces Cloudant’s replication functionality, discuss common use-cases and shows how to make your application replicate successfully.

What is Replication?

Cloudant is a distributed JSON data store with an HTTP API which is run as a service on multiple clouds, or in your server rack. Documents are stored in databases and can grow to any size as Cloudant shards its data across many nodes. Replication is the copying of data from a source database to a target database. The source and target databases need not be on the same Cloudant account, or even in the same data center.


Replication is complete when the latest version of each document in the source has made it to the destination database; this includes new documents, updates to existing documents and deletions. Only the latest version of a document remains after replication; older versions are omitted.

The source database remains unaltered by replication (apart from checkpoint data being written to it, to allow partial replications to resume from the last known position) and any pre-existing data in the destination database remains.

How do I initiate replication via the Dashboard?

The Cloudant Dashboard provides a convenient user-interface to trigger replication. Open the Replication tab of your Cloudant Dashboard and click on the New Replication button. Complete the simple form:


Using the form, define the source and target databases, then click “Replicate”.


The status of each replication task can be seen in the “All Replications” section of the Dashboard, with each job changing state from “Triggered” to “Complete” as it progresses.


How do I run replication across different Cloudant accounts?

  "source": "",
  "target": ""

The source and target of a replication are simply URLs of Cloudant databases, as shown in the example.

The source and target need not be on the same account. The source and target database names do not need to match.

Do I run replication on the source or the destination?

Replication can be initiated at either the source or the destination end. This means that you can decide whether account A is pushing data to account B, or account B is pulling data from account A. In some cases, it might not be possible to run replication in either configuration, for example when one account is behind a firewall. Replication happens over HTTP (or HTTPS) and so no non-standard ports need be opened. The decision as to which device initiates replication is yours.

How do I initiate replication via the Cloudant API?

POST /_replicator HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: ...
   -X POST
   -H 'Content-type: application/json'
   -d '@replication.json'
  "_id": "weekly_backup",
  "source": "",
  "target": "",
  "create_target": true

Every Cloudant account has a special database called _replicator, into which replication jobs can be inserted. Simply add a document into the _replicator database to initiate replication.

How does replication affect the list of changes?

You can get a list of changes made to a document using the _changes endpoint. However, the distributed nature of Cloudant databases means that the response provided by the _changes feed cannot simply be a list of changes that occurred after a particular date and time.

The CAP Theorem discussion makes it clear that Cloudant uses an ‘eventually consistent’ model. This means that if you were to ask two different replicas of a database for a document, at the same time, you might get different results if one of the database copies has not yet replicated and therefore received an update to the document. Eventually, the database copies complete their replication, so that all the changes to a document are present in each copy.

This ‘eventual consistency’ model has two characteristics that affect a list of changes:

  1. A change affecting a document almost certainly takes place at different times in different copies of the database.
  2. The order in which changes affect documents might differ between different copies of the database, depending on when and from where the replication took place.

A consequence of the first characteristic is that, when you ask for a list of changes, it is meaningless to ask for a list of changes after a given point in time. The reason is that the list of changes might be supplied by a different database copy, which resulted in document updates at different times. However, it is meaningful to ask for a list of changes after a specific change, specified using a sequence identifier.

An additional consequence of the first characteristic is that, in order to agree on the list of changes, it might be necessary to ‘look back’ at preceding changes. In other words, to get a list of changes, you start from the most recent change which the database copies agree on. The point of agreement between database copies is identified within Cloudant using the checkpoint mechanism that enables replication between database copies to be synchronized.

Finally, a consequence of the second characteristic is that the individual changes appearing in the list of changes might be presented in a different order in subsequent requests that are answered by a different database copy. In other words, an initial list of changes might report changes A, B, then C in that order. But a subsequent list of changes might report changes C, A, then B in that order. All the changes are listed, but in a different order. This is because the sequence of changes received during replication might vary between two different copies of the database.

What this means for the list of changes

When you request a list of changes, the response you get might vary depending on which database copy supplies the list.

If you use the since option to obtain a list of changes after a given update sequence identifier, you always get the list of changes after that update and you might also get some changes prior to that update. The reason is that the database copy responding to the list request must ensure that it lists the changes, consistent with all the replicas. In order to do this, the database copy might have to start the list of changes from the point when all the copies were in agreement. This point is identified using checkpoints.

Therefore, an application making use of the _changes feed should be ‘idempotent’. This means that the application must be able safely to receive the same data multiple times, and potentially if a different order for repeated requests.


Internally, the replication process writes its state in “checkpoint” documents stored in both the source and destination databases. This allows a replication task to be resumed from where it stopped, without having to start from the beginning. This feature can be switched off by supplying "use_checkpoints": false when starting replication, but it is helpful to leave the feature on if your replication is to resume efficiently from its last known position.


Admin access is required to insert a document into the _replicator database. The login credentials supplied in the source and target parameters do not require full admin rights. It is sufficient if the credentials are able to:

Cloudant has a special _replicator user permission. This allows checkpoint documents to be created, but does not allow the creation of ordinary documents in a database. It is recommended that you create API keys that have:

API keys are created and configured within the Cloudant Dashboard, on a per-database basis.


They can also be created programmatically using the Cloudant API.

Two-way replication

Data can be copied in both directions in a process known as two-way replication or synchronization. You enable this by setting up two separate replication processes, one taking the data from A to B, the other taking data from B to A. Both replication processes work independently, with data moving seamlessly in both directions.


Continuous replication

POST /_replicator HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: ...

   -X POST
   -H "Content-type: application/json"
   -d @continuous-replication.json
  "_id": "weekly_continuous_backup",
  "source": "",
  "target": "",
  "continuous": true

So far we have only dealt with one-shot replication, which finishes when all of the source data has been written to the target database. With continuous replication, data flows continuously. All subsequent changes to the source database are transmitted to the target database in real-time.

Continuous replication is triggered by clicking the “Make this replication continuous” tick box when defining a replication task in the Cloudant Dashboard, or by setting the "continuous" flag in the Cloudant API, as shown in the example.

Two-way replication can be continuous in one or both of the directions by setting the continuous flag accordingly.

Monitoring replication

curl ''
GET /_replicator/weekly_backup HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
  "_id": "weekly_backup",
  "_rev": "22-c57c18f7e761f1a76fa977caa03cd098",
  "source": "",
  "create_target": false,
  "target": "",
  "continuous": true,
  "_replication_state": "triggered",
  "_replication_state_time": "2014-12-01T15:19:01+00:00",
  "_replication_id": "4514b08cb4c2ded7da9ab04a87182ceb"

You can check the status of Cloudant’s _replicator database at any time by using the Dashboard or the API, as shown in the example.

If replication has failed, for example if the authentication credentials were invalid, then the error state is recorded in the _replicator document. In addition, the Cloudant account’s /_active_tasks endpoint can be used to see replication work as it progresses. More details are available.

Cancelling replication

curl -X DELETE ''
DELETE /_replicator/weekly_backup?rev=22-c57c18f7e761f1a76fa977caa03cd098 HTTP/1.1

To stop an ongoing replication job, delete the replication document from the _replicator database, by using either the Dashboard or the API.

Other replication use-cases

Replication isn’t just for Cloudant-to-Cloudant data transfer. Cloudant’s replication protocol is compatible with other databases and libraries for a variety of real-world applications.

Apache CouchDB

Apache CouchDB is an open-source database that can communicate with Cloudant out-of-the-box. Applications include:


var db = new PouchDB("myfirstdatabase");

var URL = "");

db.sync(URL, { live: true });

PouchDB is an open-source, in-browser database that allows data to be replicated between the browser and Cloudant, and vice-versa. Having the data stored in a web browser on the client side allows web applications to function even without an internet connection. PouchDB can sync any changed data to and from Cloudant when a internet connection is present. Setting up replication from the client side requires a few lines of Javascript.


URI uri = new URI("");
Datastore ds = manager.openDatastore("my_datastore");

// Replicate from the local to remote database
Replicator replicator = ReplicatorFactory.oneway(ds, uri);

// Fire-and-forget (there are easy ways to monitor the state too)

CloudantSync is a set of native libraries for iOS and Android that allows data to be stored locally in a mobile device and synced with Cloudant when mobile connectivity permits. As with PouchDB, setting up replication requires a few lines of code.

CloudantSync is used widely in mobile applications, such as iPhone and Android games, where the application’s state is persisted to Cloudant by replication, but the data is also available on the device for offline use.

Filtered Replication

It is useful to be able to remove some data when replicating one database to another, during the replication process. Examples include:

replication filter function
function(doc, req) {
  if (doc._deleted) {
    return false;
  return true;
POST /_replicator HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/json
Authorization: ...
   -X POST
   -H "Content-type: application/json"
   -d @filtered-replication.json
  "_id": "weekly_backup",
  "source": "",
  "target": "",
  "filter": "mydesigndoc/myfilter",
  "query_params": {
    "foo": "bar",
    "baz": 5

Cloudant’s filtered replication allows you to define a Javascript function which uses the return value to determine whether each document in a database is to be filtered or not. Filter functions are stored in Design Documents. Here is an example filter function that only allows non-deleted documents to be replicated.

When starting a replication job, a filter function’s name can be specified in terms of the design document it resides in and the filter function’s name. You can also specify query_params, an object containing properties that are passed to the filter function in the query field of its second argument.

Changes feed

GET /$db/_changes?feed=continuous HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
curl "$db/_changes?feed=continuous"

Cloudant publishes the adds, edits and deletes affecting a database on a single HTTP feed. This feed can be consumed by your application to trigger events. You can access the feed using curl, as shown in the example.

The curl command streams every change that is required to get the latest version of every document in the database. Each change has the form shown in the example results.

The changes are described using one line per change. Each change consists of:

  1. A string containing a sequence number (seq).
  2. A string containing the id of the document that has changed.
  3. An array of changes.

To see the document body itself, append &include_docs=true to the curl command.

GET /$db/_changes?feed=continuous&include_docs=true&since=11-g1AAAAEueJzLYWBgYMlgTmGQSUlKzi9KdUhJMtTLTU1M0UvOyS9NScwr0ctLLckBqmJKZEiy____f1YGUyJLLlCA3cg0zdTS3II43UkOQDKpHmoAM9gAkxQzQ2OLNOIMyGMBkgwNQApoxv6sDGaoK1KTkgwTk1IJGEGKHQcgdoAdygDxaVJSorlhShYAJoFc1Q HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
curl "$db/_changes?feed=continuous&include_docs=true&since=11-g1AAAAEueJzLYWBgYMlgTmGQSUlKzi9KdUhJMtTLTU1M0UvOyS9NScwr0ctLLckBqmJKZEiy____f1YGUyJLLlCA3cg0zdTS3II43UkOQDKpHmoAM9gAkxQzQ2OLNOIMyGMBkgwNQApoxv6sDGaoK1KTkgwTk1IJGEGKHQcgdoAdygDxaVJSorlhShYAJoFc1Q"

To join the changes feed from a known position, simply pass a since parameter with the sequence number you want to start from.

GET /$db/_changes?feed=continuous&include_docs=true&since=now HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
curl "$db/_changes?feed=continuous&include_docs=true&since=now"
var feed = db.follow({since: "now", include_docs: true})
feed.on('change', function (change) {
  console.log("change: ", change);

To rejoin the changes feed from now, set since=now.

Accessing this data programmatically is even simpler. For example, the Cloudant Node.js library enables you to follow changes with a few lines of code.

Example use cases might be:

GET /$db/_changes?feed=continuous&include_docs=true&since=now&filter=mydesigndoc/myfilter HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
curl "$db/_changes?feed=continuous&include_docs=true&since=now&filter=mydesigndoc/myfilter"

The changes feed can be filtered with a filter function, by using a similar technique to filtering during replication.

Replication Pitfalls

There are several considerations to be aware of when using replication.

Incorrect user permissions

In order for replication to proceed optimally when replicating from database “a” to database “b”, the credentials supplied must have:

API keys are generated in the Cloudant Dashboard or through the API. Each key can be given individual rights relating to a specific Cloudant database. Cloudant must be able to write its checkpoint documents at the “read” end of replication, otherwise no state is saved and replication cannot resume from where it stopped. If the state is not saved, it can lead to performance problems when resuming replications of large data sets. The reason is that without checkpoints, the replication process restarts from the beginning each time it is resumed.

Replication document is conflicted

Another consequence of setting user permissions incorrectly is that the _replicator document becomes conflicted. This document records the current state of the replication process. In an extreme case, the document can become huge because it contains many unresolved conflicts. Such a large document uses a lot of the available space and causes extra server load.

You can check the size of your _replicator database by using the command:


In the returned JSON, look for the disk_size value. If the value indicates a size of over 1GB, contact Cloudant support for further advice.

You can check an individual _replicator document for conflicts by querying GET<<docid>>?conflicts=true.

DELETE /_replicator HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
PUT /_replicator HTTP/1.1
Authorization: ...
curl -X DELETE ''
curl -X PUT ''

If you want to cancel all replications and start with a new, clean _replicator database, delete then recreate the replicator database.

Many simultaneous replications

It is easy to forget that you have previously set up replication between two databases, and so create additional replication processes in error. Each replication job is independent of the other, so Cloudant does not prevent you from doing this. However, each replication task uses up system resources.

You can check your “active replications” in the Cloudant Dashboard to ensure that there are no unwanted replication tasks in progress. Delete any _replicator documents that are no longer needed.

Tuning replication speed

By default, Cloudant replication runs at an appropriate rate to get the data from the source to the target without adversely affecting performance. There is a trade-off between replication rate and cluster performance for other tasks; your use-case might require faster replication at the expense of other Cloudant services. Alternatively, you might require cluster performance to take priority, with replication being treated as a background process.

There are advanced replication API options available which enable you to increase or decrease the amount of computing power used during replication. For example:

For further assistance about the best configuration for your use-case, contact Cloudant support.